super 8 mm database \ articles \ Super 8 chronology

 revised: January 2010

 
1965

 In April in USA, Eastman Kodak launched the Super 8 mm format, 8 mm wide film same as Standard 8 mm, but with a different distribution of picture and sprocket hole. The image area is approximately 50 %  larger. The film was loaded into a 50 ft length plastic cartridge. This magazine was a revolution in 8mm movie cameras because of its easy use by anyone: cartridge loading eliminated the threading of the film. Notches were set at specific points on the edge of the cartridge for providing information to the camera about the film speed and the daylight filter. Super 8 cameras were made with the built-in Wratten 85A filter. The first film launched was a color emulsion: Kodachrome II (ASA 40, balanced for photo lamp, type A).

 

The new format was presented at the May 1 opening of the International Photographic Exposition (IPEX) at the Coliseum of New York. Eastman Kodak presented the cameras: Instamatic M2, Instamatic M4, and Instamatic M6; and the projectors: Instamatic M50, Instamatic M60, Instamatic M70, Instamatic M80, Instamatic M90, Instamatic M100.

 

At the same photographic exposition, Beaulieu company introduced its first Super 8 camera, the Beaulieu 2008 S. Successive improved versions of this model were excellent cameras.

 

In Japan, Fuji Photo Film Corporation launched the Single 8 mm system for japanese market; dimensionally identical to Super 8, but with a different filmbase: Kodak used the traditional triacetate cellulose and Fuji used the polyester that was 1/3 thinner. Fuji loaded the film into a cartridge was quite different: B-shaped type of 50 ft. The cartridge was made with notches for providing information to the camera about the film speed. Single 8 cameras were not made with the built-in daylight filter. Fuji launched 2 color emulsions: Fujicolor R 25 (ASA 25/DIN 15, color film balanced for daylight), Fujicolor RT 50 (ASA 50/DIN 18, color film balanced for photo lamp). And two panchromatic emulsions:  Neopan R 50 (ASA 50/DIN 18, B/N film balanced for daylight) and Neopan R 200 (ASA 200/DIN 24, B/N film balanced for photo lamp.

 

In April, first Single 8 camera was marketed: the Fujica P 1: f/1.8 11.5 mm, auto exposure control, 560 g. First projetors were the Fujicascope M1 and the Fujicascope M2.

 

In June, in Austria, Eumig presented the Viennette, first movie camera with servofocus (automatic focusing), and two projectors: Eumig Mark S (sound) and Eumig Mark M (silent)

 

In October, Pathe Products Inc introduced the camera Pathe Professional Reflex DS8/BTL and the film Kodachrome II  in reversible spools containing 100 feet of double Super 8 film. The Kodachrome II was launched in two versions: type A (ASA 40, photo lamp) and type D (ASA 25, daylight).

 

In Europe, Agfa Gevaert company launched a film for Single 8 mm system: the Agfacolor CT 13 - Type S. This movie film was made with triacetate cellulose filmbase and not with  polyester filmbase.

 
     
1966

In Japan, Elmo company launched the camera C300 Tri-filmatic, that accepts the both cartridges of Super 8 and Single 8, and the spools of Double 8 mm and Double Super 8. This camera has 4 different magazines that adjust in the back part, one for each format.

 

Agfa Gevaert launched in Europe a film for super 8: the Agfacolor CK17, balanced for photo lamp, with speed film of ASA 40. With this new emulsion, Agva Gevaert marketed 2 movie cameras: the Movex S Automatic and the Movex SV Automatic.

 

 
     

1967

1968

1969

1970

1971

In Usa, MPO Videotronic Projector company marketed the Videotronic Compact Super 8, a portable cassette projector.

In Usa, Bell & Howell company introduced the Filmosound 8 system. A system that coordinates the use of a camera, a projector and a portable cassette recorder. This tape recorder uses a compact-cassette and it accompanies sound during the filming and plays back the result during projection.

Bell & Howell company marketed the 435 Focus Matic camera. Focus Matic is a focusing system that uses gravity to calculate the distance from camera to object.

In Germany, Bauer company obtained a device of film rewind for the Super 8 cartridge (90 fps approx), that incorporated the Bauer C Royal camera.

Agfa Gevaert marketed the Microflex Sensor, announced as "the smallest camera in the world".

At the Photokina, Canon exhibited a prototype of the Canon Auto Zoom 2018, a camera with 20x zoom that was commercially viable, because the production costs proved exorbitant.

In July, Eastman Kodak introduced Kodak Analyst camera and a MFX film, a low-cost security camera and special film aimed specifically at the market for small businesses that cannot afford the elaborate equipment used by banks and department stores. MFX film has a polyester base (ASA 200, panchromatic).

In August in USA, Eastman Kodak company announced its XL system cameras (name: eXisting Light filming). This system improved part of the camera mechanism to increase the volume of the light reaching the film surface. With the new XL series, Kodak marketed new color emulsion: Ektachrome 160 (ASA 160/DIN 23, balanced for photo lamp). The first cameras of this series were: Kodak XL 33 and Kodak XL 55, with f/1.2 lens and 230 shutter.

In Usa, Bob Doyle founded Super8 Sound, a company that developed low-cost sync-sound filmmaking equipment.

In December, in Japan, Fuji Photo Film company launched the ZS 400 - CVR System, a camera with optical sound recording on Single 8 film.

 
     
1972

Eastman Kodak marketed the Kodak Videoplayer. This new machine accepts both color and sound Super 8 movies in standard Kodak cartridges up to 400-foot size and plays them over your conventional TV.

Visual Instrument Corporation launched the VIC SP-1, a camera developed for scientific applications, designed to run super 8 film up to 250 fps using the standard super 8 cartridge.

In USA, first Super 8 camera with sound-on-film recording system: Wilcam Photo Research made an adaptation of Minolta Autopak-8 D10 for incorporating a sound recording unit.

Ernst Leitz GmbH marketed the Leicina Special, a top Super 8 movie camera with interchangeable lenses of M-mount type.

 
     
1973

In April, in Japan, Canon company marketed the Auto Zoom 1014 Electronic camera.

In Japan, Nikon Kogaku launched the R 10 Super camera.

In Japan, Minolta launched the Autopak-8 D 12 camera, improved version from Autopak-8 D 10, top movie camera marketed 4 years before.

In Japan, Shinsei Optical Works company made the Nalcom FTL camera with innovative design.

In France, Heurtier company marketed the Stereo 42, one of the first projectors that used the balance strip for stereophonic playback.

 
     
1974

In august in USA, Eastman Kodak presented Super 8 Direct Sound System: sound recording on magnetic striped film. The cartridge that contains the sound film was longer than the silent cartridge. But the new sound cameras were compatible with both cartridges. Kodak marketed the Ektasound series and the new cartridge with 2 different emulsions: Kodachrome II Sound and Ektachrome 160 A Sound.

 

In June, Agfa Gevaert introduced a new emulsion for Super 8, a mproved version of Agfachrome, with a box designed by Frank Giamninoto.

 

In Germany, Braun AG launched the Nizo Professional movie camera, a top movie camera with Schneider-Kreuznach 11.4x zoom lens. This manufacturer built marketed about 60 cine cameras, all of which were of high quality.

 
     
1975

In USA, Eastman Kodak improved the Kodachrome II emulsion and the laboratory process. The new Kodachrome uses a K-14 process. 2 emulsion were launched: Kodachrome 40 A in silent and sound cartridges, and Kodachrome 25 D in double super 8 spools.

 

In USA, Eastman Kodak marketed the new Sound 200 ft Cassette. The base of this new cartridge has form of sound cartridge for sound recording.

In March, Fuji Photo Film marketed the Fujica ZC 1000.

 
     
1976

In Usa, Eastman Kodak presented a new emulsion, the Ektachrome 160 G, for use indoor and outdoor without filter.

 
     
1978

In USA, Polaroid launched Polavision, a instant film system. The film is same as Super 8 film, but with a different cartridge. Polavision phototape cassette have the following characteristics in common: film width: 8 mm; film length: 38.5 feet; frame size: 4.2 x 5.7 mm; frames per cassette: 2800; packaged in sealed cassette; Polavision phototape cassette requires Polaroid Polavision Player for development and viewing: you could watch your film 90 seconds after shooting. Development process automatically occurs when phototape cassette is inserted into Polaroid Polavision Player the first time.

 

In France, Beaulieu company marketed the 708 EL projector.

 

In Japan, Sankyo Seiki marketed the first super 8 camera with Auto Focusing system, the Sankyo ES 44 XL VAF.

 

In Japan, Elmo company presented the Elmo GS 1200 electronic projector with all kind of features.

 
     
1979

In Austria, Eumig made the Nautica, first submarine camera that was waterproof down to 40 m

 
     
1980

Bauer Bosch company presented the S 715 XL model,  the best camera made by this manufacturer that marketed about 100 super 8 cameras. And the same year, this company launched the T 610 Microcomputer Stereo projector,  a top model made by this manufacturer that marketed about 70 super 8 projectors.

Bell & Howell company launched the MS 30 and MS 45 models, two modular cameras with changeable control-panels. Another camera made by one of the largest manufacturers of small format equipment.

 
     
1981

In Germany, Agfa Gevaert marketed the Agfa Family system, composed by camera and projector. When you shooting with Agfa Family Camera, you can a photography. Depressing a button, a mark is made in unperforated film margin in response to a still exposure. Markings serve to stop film automatically for viewing in Agfa Family Monitor

In Japan, Chinon Industries launched the camera Chinon 200/12 XL Pacific, the best camera made by this manufacturer that marketed about 120 Super 8 cameras.

In Austria, Eumig company, since 1931 production of substandard-gauge film projectors and movie cameras, sought bankruptcy petition at a time when the company had 6,000 employees. The financial losses in manufacturing Polavision instant movie system were too great for Eumig to absorb, and the company was forced out of buisness.

 
     
1982

In Usa, Eastman Kodak introduced the improved version of Ektachrome emulsions: 40A, 160A and 160G, and changed the laboratory process.

In Germany, Agfa Gevaert introduces the Moviechrome movie film, a new emulsion compatible with E-6 that replaced the Agfachrome film. Under that name were sold until 1994 four different emulsions.

 
     
1983

In Usa, Eastman Kodak stopped producing movie cameras.

 
     
1986

In Japan, Chinon Industries discontinued fabricating Super 8 equipment. This manufacturer produced Super 8 cameras for Bauer, Bolex, GAF Ansco, Noris, Porst, Revue or Rollei. By 1973, Chinon had made 280,000 movie cameras. And by 1976, 60,000 Super 8 movie cameras per month were made.

This same year, Robert Bosch  stopped producing Bauer and Nizo movie cameras.

 
     

1993

 

 

 

1997

 

1998

 

 

2204

In Russia, Krasnogorskiy Mekhanicheskiy Zavod stopped manufacturing the Zenit Quarz 1x8-C-2 camera. This apparatus was in production since 1974 with about 30,000 units manufactured.

In Usa, Eastman Kodak stopped manufacturing Super 8 sound cartridges.

In Japan, Fuji Photo Film stopped manufacturing Single 8 sound cartridges and introduce two new emulsions: Fuji R25N and Fuji RT200N.

Eastman Kodak marketed a negative emulsion in 2 different film speeds: the Kodak Vision 2 200T and Kodak Vision 2 500T. This emulsion was launched for be transfered to video image.

 
     

2005

2008

2010

Eastman Kodak stopped manufacturing the film Kodachrome 40 and introduced the film Ektachrome 64T.

In October, Eastman Kodak marketed a new negative emulsion in Super 8 cartridge: the Kodak Vision 3.

In April, Eastman Kodak marketed the Ektachrome 100D. In May, Fuji Photo Film stopped selling Fujichrome RT200N in Single 8 cartridge.